Promoting And Protecting Freedom Of Religion And Belief In Nigeria (PP-FORB NIGERIA)

Client - Search For Common Ground
ObjectiveStudy :

(1) Mapping Of Stakeholders & Referral Pathways For Victims Of Religious Violence
(2) Media & Communication Channel Mapping

Practice Area:

Developmental Aid

Status:

Completed

Locations:

Nigeria

Start Date:

January 2023

End Date:

October 2023

Project Summary

SfCG Nigeria is implementing a 36-month project with an overall goal to empower actors to prevent and address conflicts along religious lines and advance FoRB in Nigeria. The program employs a national scope of implementation that engages key actors at the National level and across the 6 geopolitical regions of Nigeria. The choice of a national scope for the program is also informed by SfCG’s learnings from similar projects implemented in the past, where key stakeholders asked questions related to the rationale for limiting the scope of projects/programs to the northern region of Nigeria. In addition, the proposed national scope also presents an opportunity to establish a nationwide EWER mechanism through the National Inter-Religious Council, Community of Practice, Common Ground Journalist Forum, and social media influencers.

This goal is supported by three specific objectives:

  • To establish effective Early Warning/Early Response (EWER) and referral mechanisms for addressing FoRB violations and violence along religious lines in Nigeria.
  • To strengthen support mechanisms for individuals at risk of FoRB violations.
  • To enhance public understanding of interfaith conflict and the importance of FoRB.

About the study

The mapping exercise was conducted across the six geopolitical zones of the country, covering all 36 states and the Federal Capital Territory (FCT). With guidance from Search MEL and other project technical team members, the study mapped existing referral pathways and systems for addressing religious conflicts and supporting victims of this conflict, key stakeholders and actors who promote FoRB, as well as existing EWER systems to mitigate religious violence. The mapping will help SfCG to establish an EWER system that will address religious-based conflicts and enable the organization to document key lessons from utilizing these referral pathways. The objectives of the mapping are:

  • Document existing referral pathways and systems for addressing religious conflicts and supporting victims of religious violence.
  • Map and document existing coalition/network/platform on advancing FoRB and their geographic location and spread.
  • Identify direct and indirect stakeholders/actors and analyze their level of influence to advance FoRB.
  • Map existing early response systems to early warning of religious conflict.
  • Map legal practitioners and networks working on FoRB and religious conflict

The evaluation adopted a utilization-focused approach. The research team coordinated with SfCG’s Design, Monitoring & Evaluation, and Learning focal points to ensure that the study design aligns with the project’s requirements for learning, accountability to donors, and usability. The principle of credibility guided CRADI’s overall approach. This principle requires that the most reliable and credible evidence is utilized and analyzed appropriately to generate findings, conclusions, and recommendations upon which the program implementation, partners, and key stakeholders can confidently act. Additionally, the study employed a mixed-method approach, specifically a qualitative design. This method involved conducting a desk review of related literature and analysis of secondary data as well as KIIs with 208 stakeholders across the 36 states and FCT covering the 6 geopolitical zones of Nigeria to gather perspectives from various stakeholders through a participatory process. The study employed a qualitative method of data analysis. It analyzed, synthesized, and triangulated the multi-level perspectives gained at the data collection stage to characterize the discussion of different [sub]themes in the report. By implication, the field notes for the mapping were transferred into the designed reporting template to ensure that the analysis of the respondents’ perceptions was consistent with the study’s objectives. The descriptive analysis used ethnographic summaries and manual content analysis to present the mapping findings.

The study mapped out and analysed the partners and key project stakeholders, including the critical entry or leverage points. The effort aimed at gaining insights into the influences of existing systems and structures.

Media And Communication Channel Mapping

SfCG Nigeria is implementing a 36-month project with an overall goal to empower actors to prevent and address conflicts along religious lines and advance FoRB in Nigeria. The program employs a national scope of implementation that engages key actors at the National level and across the 6 geopolitical regions of Nigeria. The choice of a national scope for the program is also informed by SfCG’s learnings from similar projects implemented in the past, where key stakeholders asked questions related to the rationale for limiting the scope of projects/programs to the northern region of Nigeria. In addition, the proposed national scope also presents an opportunity to establish a nationwide EWER mechanism through the National Inter-Religious Council, Community of Practice, Common Ground Journalist Forum, and social media influencers.

This goal is supported by three specific objectives and a corresponding six intermediate results, and three expected results which will guide the program’s activities:

  • To establish effective Early Warning/Early Response (EWER) and referral mechanisms for addressing FoRB violations and violence along religious lines in Nigeria.
  • To strengthen support mechanisms for individuals at risk of FoRB violations.
  • To enhance public understanding of interfaith conflict and the importance of FoRB.

Purpose and Objectives of the Media Mapping

The research was conducted to map the media and communication channels to provide strategic communication to establish effective Early Warning/Early Response (EWER) and referral mechanisms for addressing FoRB violations and violence along religious lines in Nigeria. It was also conducted to strengthen support mechanisms for individuals at risk of FoRB violations and to enhance public understanding of interfaith conflict and the importance of Freedom of Religious Belief to various stakeholder groups. The research was guided by six specific objectives as shown below;

Media Sector Mapping

  • To generate a database of media houses (radio and TV stations) – both private and public owned and their networks across the six Geo-political zones and 36 states in Nigeria including the FCT.
  • To gather information on the current Early Warning/Early Response (EWER) and referral mechanisms for addressing FoRB violations and violence along religious lines programs currently being aired across all the states in Nigeria.
  • To generate a database of social media channels used for information dissemination across the states.

Communication Channel Assessment

  • To determine what information sources and communication channels {this should include radio (FM and AM), TV, as well as social media} are most trusted by varying demographics (Youths, women, IDPs, and PWDs) across the country.
  • To determine appropriate communication channels for disseminating information for varying demographics (Youths, women, IDPs, and PWDs).
  • To ascertain the listening habits of community members in the selected states including prime times and days of radio listenership, preferred format, and preferred language for radio program.

Scope of the Evaluation

The mapping exercise was conducted across the six geopolitical zones of the country, covering all 36 states and the Federal Capital Territory (FCT). With guidance from Search MEL and other project technical team members, the study mapped out the media sector, created a directory of media houses with information on their reach and coverage, and assess communication channels, including popular social media platforms such as Facebook, Twitter, and others. The goal was to determine the most relied upon and trusted sources of information and communication channels among community members, including traditional and religious leaders in the target locations. Additionally, the study investigated the listening habits of community members in the selected states, including prime times and days for radio listenership, preferred radio formats, and the preferred language for radio programs.

Methodology:

The study adopted a utilization-focused approach, ensuring alignment with Search’s requirements and usability. It employed a mixed-methods approach, combining qualitative and quantitative methods to gather perspectives from diverse stakeholders in a participatory manner. Purposive sampling was employed to select respondents from each state, ensuring a comprehensive understanding of the media landscape across the country. Within each state, random sampling was also utilized to distribute surveys, guaranteeing a fair and representative selection of respondents from various media outlets. The surveys collected data on factors such as media reach, target audience, ownership structures, and content focus. Additionally, key informant interviews were conducted with representatives from selected stakeholders to provide in-depth insights into the media landscape, challenges, opportunities, and perceptions related to religious conflicts and freedom of religious belief. Through this mapping exercise, potential media contacts and key influencers were identified, which the program can leverage for effective information dissemination through localized content. A total of 142 surveys were administered to media stakeholders, with 344 surveys administered to community members, and 201 key informant interviews (KIIs) conducted with community members.

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